Top 15 Ancient Egyptian Gods And Goddesses - Ancient Egyptian Deities
14 May, 2024

Top 15 Ancient Egyptian Gods And Goddesses - Ancient Egyptian Deities

Tags: Egyptian Mythology

The ancient Egyptians profoundly believed that gods and goddesses were celestial entities capable of unlocking the mysteries of the cosmos, including the Milky Way, and performing acts of wonder. 

As a testament to their respect, the ancient Egyptians honored their divine beings by creating physical representations that spanned the entire length of Egypt, from Cairo to Alexandria to Luxor and Aswan. These representations documented the variety of life forms in each Egyptian territory and were a testament to the depth and vastness of their culture and religion.

Worshiping these ancient Egyptian gods and goddesses was not merely a religious practice; instead, it was blended into the very fabric of their daily lives, becoming an essential part of their existence.

 The pantheon of Ancient Egypt was vast and diverse, boasting over 1500 deities. Each deity was believed to embody and govern a specific aspect of the universe, playing a crucial role in the harmonious function of the environment.

Now, let’s embark on a journey through time to meet the divine entities that shaped the ancient Egyptian civilization. From the sun god Amun-Ra to the complex goddess Isis, each deity has a unique relationship and a story to tell. Let’s explore together!

1 Amun (Amun-Ra): The Hidden Force of Creation!


Amun, a principal god in ancient Egyptian mythology, and the pantheon of Ancient Egyptian Gods, symbolized the sun, wind, and fertility. His name translates to “The Hidden One,” a title that evokes a sense of mystery and intrigue, reflecting his complex theology.



Amun-Ra is often depicted as a man in majestic attire. At times, he's shown as a ram, holding symbols of power and life in his hands. He's also represented in various forms such as a goose, frog, or lion, each signifying different facets of his divine persona. 



As Amun-Ra, he was a hidden god, his name and form unseeable, indicating his absolute perfection and distinction from other gods. His sanctity kept him separate from the created universe, and his association with air made him an invisible force, facilitating his rise as a supreme god.

Amun was seen as self-created, though older theological schools considered him one of the Eightfold gods. He could renew and recreate himself, symbolized by his transformation into a snake and shedding his skin.

By merging with Ra, the sun deity, Amun revealed himself to creation. As Amun, he was hidden and separated from the world, while as Ra, he was visible and life-giving. His relationship with Maat, the Egyptian concept of universal justice and balance, was a logical extension of this duality.

2 Ra (The Radiant Sun God)


Ra or Atum, one of the Ancient Egyptian Gods and the Egyptian sun deity, was primarily associated with the midday sun. Ra governed every aspect of the created world: the heavens, the Earth, and the underworld. He was thought to have reigned as Ancient Egypt's first pharaoh. He was the god of the Sun, order, monarchs, and the heavens.


Atum, often depicted as a man in royal attire, is a revered figure. Occasionally, he's portrayed as a serpent, with a scepter in his right hand and the ankh, a life symbol, in his left. He's also represented in various forms such as a mongoose, lion, bull, lizard, or monkey, each symbolizing different aspects of his divine nature. 


In one of the ancient Egyptian myths about the universe's origin, it's believed that Atum self-created atop the eternal hill, thus becoming the world's creator. He's described as both male and female, which is thought to be a reason for his perfection.

Atum tops the list of the Heliopolitan Ennead, which includes the first nine deities: Amun, Mut, Hathor, Isis, and Osiris. He merged with Ra, known as "Atum-Ra." As seen in the panel showing the early deities' relationships, "Atum" is the father of Shu and Tefnut. Shu married Tefnut, and they bore four other deities: Isis, Osiris, Set, and Nephthys.


According to the Isis and Osiris myth, they gave birth to Horus, who was represented on earth by the Pharaoh of Egypt. The golden falcon symbolized Horus.

3 Osiris "Lord  of Justice"


Osiris, the god of resurrection and judgment, presided over the court of the dead in ancient Egypt. He was a crucial deity in the Heliopolitan Ennead of the ancient Egyptian religion and the only god who rivaled the worship of Ra.



Osiris, in his most developed form of iconography, wears the Atef crown with two ostrich feathers and carries a crook and flail, symbolizing his shepherd god role. Often depicted as a pharaoh, his skin is either green, signifying rebirth, or black, representing the fertile Nile floodplain. He is shown in mummified attire.




According to ancient Egyptian religious myth, Osiris was the brother of Isis, Nephthys, and Set and married to Isis. Their parents were Geb, the god of earth, and Nut, the goddess of the sky. The myth states that “Osiris” was the first Egyptian king to rule in prehistoric times. 

His sacred city was Zedu, named after his charm. As for the riverbanks, Osiris was the lord of floods and greenery and the ruler of the dead. His worship in Abydos was mixed with other worships, where it was believed that his head was buried. This was because the Egyptian gods did not have a specific place to live like Olympus for the Greeks.

4 Isis: The Divine Mother!



Isis is one of the Ancient Egyptian Goddesses whose worship spread throughout the Greco-Roman world. and one of the main characters of the Osiris myth, she resurrects her slain husband, Osiris, and safeguards their heir, Horus.



Isis was usually depicted as a human woman wearing a throne-shaped hieroglyph on her head. During the New Kingdom, As she adopted traits that initially belonged to Hathor, the renowned goddess of earlier times, Isis was portrayed wearing Hathor's headdress, featuring a sun disk nestled between cow horns.



Isis, who aided Osiris into the afterlife, was believed to help the dead enter the afterlife.

She was also seen as the divine mother of the pharaoh and equated to Horus. Her maternal assistance was sought in healing spells for commoners. Initially, her role in royal rituals and temple ceremonies was limited, but she was more involved in funerary rituals and magical texts.

5 Hathor: Goddess of Fertility & Women’s Prayers!


Hathor, a significant goddess in ancient Egyptian religion, fulfilled numerous roles. As a celestial deity.

With the patronage of Old Kingdom rulers, she became one of Egypt's most important deities. More temples were dedicated to her than to any other goddess; her most prominent temple was Dendera in Upper Egypt. 



Hathor, frequently portrayed as a cow, embodied her motherly and celestial attributes. Her principal depiction was a woman donning a headdress with cow horns and a sun disk. Alternatively, she could be illustrated as a lioness, a cobra, or even a sycamore tree.


Hathor one of the Ancient Egyptian Goddesses, was the consort of the sky god Horus and the sun god Ra, both linked to sovereignty. Consequently, she symbolically mothered their terrestrial counterparts, the pharaohs. She was also worshipped in the temples of her male consorts.


Even in modern Egypt, she was one of the deities commonly invoked in private prayers and votive offerings, particularly by women desiring children.

“Egyptian women surrounding the head of the goddess Hathor, the deity of motherhood, for blessings in the year 1890.”

6 Ma’at: The Divine Order & Justice


Maat, the goddess of truth, justice, and cosmic order, is represented in the form of a woman bearing an ostrich feather on her head, a justice emblem. In the image, she wields the ankh, the life key, in one hand and the scepter of authority in the other.



Maat, often depicted as a woman with an ostrich feather on her head, symbolizes justice and truth. This key iconographic element underscores her role as the universe's balance upholder. She's also seen holding the ankh, symbolizing life, and a scepter, denoting authority. Her iconography visually represents the principles she embodies and the cosmic order she maintains.



Ma'at, the ancient Egyptian goddess, symbolizes justice, truth, harmony, and balance. Her influence permeated every aspect of Egyptian culture. She ordered the universe, placed stars in the sky, and regulated seasons. In the afterlife, Ma'at became the feather of truth, weighing hearts to judge entry to paradise, 'The Fields of Reeds. Ma'at, meaning “That Which Is Straight.”

7 Horus: The Falcon-Headed Deity


In a story, Isis gives birth to Horus after collecting all the scattered body parts of her slain husband Osiris, except his phallus, which was discarded into the Nile and consumed by a catfish or occasionally represented by a crab. As per Plutarch's narrative, she employs her magical abilities to revive Osiris and create a phallus to bear her child.



Horus, the falcon-headed deity, holds a significant place in ancient Egyptian iconography. Known for its keen eyesight and swift flight, the falcon symbolized divine kingship, watch, and authority. 

Horus's falcon eyes were associated with the sun and the moon, representing his all-seeing and protective nature. From the Middle Kingdom onward, Horus was often depicted as a winged sun disk, representing the Horus of Behdet, a key cult center of the falcon god. 



In the pantheon of Ancient Egyptian Gods, Horus served many roles, most notably as the god of kingship. He was worshipped from at least late prehistoric Egypt until the Ptolemaic Kingdom and Roman Egypt.

 The reigning king was considered a representation of Horus, an image accepted as philosophy after the kings from Nekhen united Upper and Lower Egypt. This association with the pharaohs underscores Horus's pivotal role in ancient Egyptian mythology.

8 Anubis: The Jackal-Headed Guardian of the Dead



Anubis, also known as Inpu, is a prominent figure in Egyptian mythology. As one of the oldest gods of Egypt, he is often depicted with the head of a jackal, symbolizing his connection to the afterlife and his role as the guardian of graves.



Anubis' iconography is deeply rooted in ancient Egyptian culture. He is often depicted as a man with the head of a jackal, wearing a robe or kilt. His black fur represents the fertile soil of the Nile River, symbolizing life and regeneration. This unique symbol represented his connection to the underworld and the role he played as the guardian of graves. His image is seen on royal tombs from the First Dynasty of Egypt (c. 3150-2890 BCE), reflecting his long-standing role as protector of the dead.



In the pantheon of Ancient Egyptian Gods, Anubis was the original god of the dead. He was worshipped as the god of mummification, funerary rituals, and the guardian of tombs. He was also the guide to the afterlife and the patron god of lost souls and the helpless. His particular concern was with the funerary cult and the care of the dead. He was reputed to be the inventor of mummification.

9 Set: The Dual Nature of Disorder’s God!


Set, also known as Seth and Suetekh, is a prominent figure in Egyptian mythology. As the god of war, chaos, and storms, he embodies the elements of disorder and foreign influence. His unique iconography and significant role in mythology make him one of the most fascinating deities.



Among the Ancient Egyptian Gods, Set is often depicted as a red-haired beast with a forked tail and cloven hooves or a shaggy red dog-like beast known as a sha. This creature, sometimes referred to as the Set Animal, is believed to be a purely mythological creature imagined specifically to represent Set. His other symbols include the griffin, hippopotamus, crocodile, and tortoise, though he was primarily associated with the serpent.



In Egyptian mythology, Set played a complex role. In the Early Dynastic Period, he was a compassionate god, invoked for love spells. He was also the deity who saved the sun god Ra from the serpent Apophis. However, by the New Kingdom, he became known as the first murderer, who killed his older brother Osiris and then tried to murder Osiris' son Horus. Despite his transformation into a villain, he was still invoked by common people and pharaohs for assistance.

10 Nephthys: The Protective Sister & Divine Helper



Nephthys, known as Nebet-Het in ancient Egyptian, is a significant figure in Egyptian mythology. As the sister of Isis and Osiris and wife of Set, she embodies the elements of sanctuary and domesticity.



Nephthys is often depicted with the hieroglyph for 'house' on her crown. This 'house' is neither an earthly home nor a temple but linked to the heavens as she was related to air and ether. In her role as a protective goddess, she was represented by the pylons outside of temples. Her symbols include the hawk, sycamore tree, and mummy wrappings.



She was commonly paired with her sister Isis in funerary rituals She was associated with mourning, the night/darkness, childbirth, the dead, protection, magic, health, and beer. In the late Egyptian temple texts, she’s depicted as a goddess symbolizing divine aid and protective guardianship.

In the realm of Ancient Egyptian Goddesses, Nephthys is regarded as the mother of the funerary deity Anubis (Inpu). Despite her complex relationships within the pantheon, she was invoked by common people and pharaohs for assistance.

11 Nut: The Sky Goddess of Eternal Rebirth!


Nut, known as Nwt in Ancient Egyptian, is a significant figure in Egyptian mythology. As the goddess of the sky, stars, cosmos, mothers, astronomy, and the universe, she embodies the elements of creation and the afterlife.



Nut is often depicted as a star-covered nude woman arched over the Earth, or as a cow. Her body, adorned with celestial bodies like the sun, moon, and stars, portrayed the heavens in motion – the moon waxing and waning, the sun rising and setting, and the stars marking the seasons and the celestial calendar of time. Each was a reminder of the precision and regularity of the universe, embodying the idea that life, death, and rebirth were all part of an unending cycle overseen by the divine.



 Among the Ancient Egyptian Goddesses, Nut has a unique role. Each morning, Nut gives birth to the sun god Ra, who travels across her body throughout the day before being swallowed at sunset. During the night, Ra travels through the underworld and, come dawn, is reborn again from Nut’s womb. This cyclical event depicts not just day and night but also symbolizes the eternal cycle of birth, death, and rebirth.

12 Shu: God of Air and Wind!



Shu, known as the god of air and wind in ancient Egyptian mythology, is a significant deity. As one of the first gods created by Atum-Ra, he embodies the elements of peace, air, and lions.



Shu is typically depicted in human form holding the ankh symbol. His symbols include the lion, ostrich feather, wind, and air. These symbols represent his control over the air and his role as a peacekeeper. His depiction often includes outstretched arms, symbolizing his eternal duty of holding apart the earth and sky.



In Egyptian mythology, Shu played a significant role. He was one of the first gods created by Atum-Ra. As the god of air, he kept the earth and sky from touching each other. He was revered for his control of the air, wind, and lions. His role in the cosmic order emphasized his act of separating the earth and sky, establishing a delicate balance between order and chaos.

13 Tefnut: The Dew and Rain Goddess!



Tefnut, an ancient Egyptian deity, is revered as a goddess of moisture, moist air, dew, and rain. As one of the first gods created by Ra, she holds a significant place in Egyptian mythology. Her name, which translates to "That Water", reflects her association with life-giving elements.



Tefnut's iconography is deeply rooted in her lionlike aspects. She is often depicted as a woman with the head of a lioness, symbolizing her fierce power and divine authority. This leonine depiction is a common theme in the Great Ennead of Heliopolis, a group of nine deities of which Tefnut is a part. In addition to her human-lioness form, Tefnut can also be depicted as a full lioness or even as a fully human figure. Her association with the Uraeus, a rearing cobra symbolizing protection, royalty, and divine authority, makes her a significant figure among the Ancient Egyptian Goddesses.



Tefnut is the sister and consort of the air god Shu, and the mother of Geb (the earth) and Nut (the sky). Her bloodline includes famous Egyptian deities such as Osiris, Isis, Set, and Nephthys. Tefnut's domain extends to moisture, heaven, time, justice, and order. She is also associated with the left (moon) and right (sun) "Eyes of Ra". Her tears were believed to make the land of Egypt fertile.

14 Bastet: The Lioness Turned Domestic Cat!



Bastet, also known as Bast, is a revered figure in Egyptian mythology. Originally depicted as a fierce lioness, she later became associated with the domestic cat. As the daughter of Ra, the sun god, Bastet holds a significant place in the pantheon of Egyptian deities.



Bastet's iconography evolved over time, reflecting her changing role in Egyptian society. Initially, she was depicted as a lioness, symbolizing her fierce nature. However, during the New Kingdom period, after 1100 BC, Bastet began to be represented as a domestic cat or a woman with a cat's head. This shift in depiction aligns with her transformation from a fierce lioness to a protective deity. In many depictions, Bastet is seen holding an ankh, the Egyptian symbol of life.



In Egyptian mythology, Bastet plays a multifaceted role. She is the goddess of protection, cats, pregnancy, fertility, music, and warfare. Bastet is considered a protector deity of both humans and felines. Her protective nature extends to the home, guarding families against evil spirits and diseases, especially those of women and children.

15 Thoth: The God of Wisdom


Thoth, also known as Djehuty, is a significant deity in the pantheon of Ancient Egyptian Gods. He is the god of the moon, wisdom, knowledge, writing, hieroglyphs, science, magic, art, and judgment, and his influence is profound.



Thoth's iconography is captivating and reflects his multifaceted nature. He is often depicted as a man with the head of an ibis or a baboon, animals sacred to him. The ibis, associated with wisdom and knowledge in ancient Egypt, perfectly epitomized Thoth's domain. His iconography also includes symbols like the moon disk, papyrus scroll, reed pens, writing palette, and scales.



Thoth was the scribe of the gods, credited with the invention of writing and Egyptian hieroglyphs. Thoth was also the mediator and advisor to the gods, heavily associated with the arbitration of godly disputes. In the myth of Osiris, Thoth protected Isis during her pregnancy and healed the eye of her son, Horus. He weighed the hearts of the deceased at their judgment and reported the result to the presiding god, Osiris.



Embark on an unforgettable journey with SunPyramids Tours to the heart of Egypt, where these deities were once revered. Experience the awe-inspiring temples, tombs, and monuments that bear testament to their divine power. Our expert guides will bring these ancient tales to life, offering you a deeper understanding of Egypt’s rich cultural heritage. Don’t just read about history - experience it with SunPyramids Tours. Book your Egyptian adventure today!

Why do I book with Sun Pyramids Tours?


1) Expertise and Experience: Sun Pyramids Tours has a wealth of 53 years of experience in the travel and tourism industry.


2) Customized Itineraries: Sun Pyramids Tours offers tailored itineraries to suit your preferences. Whether you're interested in historical sites, cultural immersion, or adventure activities, we can design a tour that matches your interests.


3) Local Connections and Insider Access: Sun Pyramids Tours can provide you with unique opportunities and insider access to attractions and experiences that may not be easily accessible to independent travelers.


4) Hassle-Free Planning: Sun Pyramids Tours can take the stress out of planning your trip. We handle all the logistics, including accommodations, transportation, and guided tours, at competitive prices… Relax and enjoy your vacation without worrying about the details.


5) Customer Satisfaction: Sun Pyramids Tours prides itself on providing excellent customer service and ensuring customer satisfaction. They strive to meet and exceed your expectations, making your trip enjoyable and memorable. Add trip advisor reviews, Facebook page reviews, etc.


6) Safety and Security: Sun Pyramids Tours prioritizes the safety and security of their guests. We work with trusted partners, adhere to safety guidelines, and provide support throughout your journey to ensure a safe and comfortable travel experience.