Cairo City History, Capital City of Egypt
26 May, 2024

Cairo City History, Capital City of Egypt

Tags: Cairo Monuments,Egypt Civilization,Egypt Travel Blog

Cairo is The Capital of Egypt and one of the largest and most populous cities in Africa and the Middle East. It is also a city with a rich and fascinating history that spans thousands of years. From ancient civilizations to modern revolutions, Cairo has witnessed many events that shaped the history of Egypt and the world. In this article, we will answer some of the most frequently asked questions about Cairo's city history, giving you alot of Information About Cairo Egypt, and give you reasons to join one of our packages and explore this amazing city and memorize your Holiday in Egypt.

When was Cairo founded, and by whom?



The foundation of Cairo Egypt, can be traced back to the first millennium settlements, such as Babylon. Notably, Babylon is an ancient citadel built around 30 BC after the arrival of Emperor Augustus in Egypt. However, it is believed that the Persians constructed the original Babylon Fortress during the 6th century BC.


The Capital of Egypt we know today as Cairo was founded by the Fatimids, a Shia Muslim dynasty that ruled North Africa and parts of the Middle East from the 10th to the 12th centuries. In 969, they established a new city called al-Mu’izziyya al-Qahira (the victorious city of al-Mu’izz) to serve as their capital and a center of power. The name al-Qahira later evolved into Cairo.

Most important historical events that happened in Cairo?

Cairo has been the scene of many historical events that influenced Egyptian and world history. Some of these events are:


  • The Crusades: In 1169, Saladin, a Kurdish Muslim leader, became the ruler of Egypt and unified the Muslim forces against the Crusaders who occupied Jerusalem and other parts of the Holy Land. He built a citadel on a hill overlooking Cairo to serve as his headquarters and a defensive fortress. In 1187, he defeated the Crusaders at the Battle of Hattin and recaptured Jerusalem.


  • The Mamluk Era: In 1250, a group of slave soldiers known as the Mamluks seized power in Egypt and established a sultanate that lasted until 1517. The Mamluks were renowned for their military prowess and patronage of art and architecture. They built many mosques, madrasas (schools), mausoleums, and palaces in Cairo, some of which still stand today. They also resisted the Mongol invasion in 1260 and defended Egypt against the Ottoman Turks in 1516.


  • The Ottoman Era: In 1517, the Ottoman Turks conquered Egypt and made Cairo a provincial capital in their vast empire. The Ottomans ruled Egypt indirectly through local governors called pashas, who often exploited the people and neglected the city. However, some pashas were more benevolent and contributed to the development of Cairo. For example, Muhammad Ali Pasha, who ruled from 1805 to 1848, modernized Egypt’s army, economy, education, and infrastructure. He also built many public works in Cairo, such as mosques, gardens, bridges, and roads.


  • The Egyptian Revolution of 1919: In 1919, following the end of World War I, Egyptians rose up against the British occupation that had begun in 1882. They demanded independence and self-determination for their country. The revolution was led by Saad Zaghloul, a nationalist leader who formed a political party called Wafd (delegation). Mass demonstrations, strikes, civil disobedience, and violent clashes with the British forces marked the revolution. The revolution forced the British to recognize Egypt’s sovereignty in 1922 and grant it partial independence in 1936.


  • The Egyptian Revolution of 1952: In 1952, a group of young army officers led by Gamal Abdel Nasser staged a coup d’etat against King Farouk, who was seen as corrupt and incompetent. They abolished the monarchy and established a republic with Nasser as president. Nasser pursued a policy of Arab nationalism, socialism, and anti-imperialism. He nationalized the Suez Canal in 1956, sparking an international crisis with Britain, France, and Israel. He also initiated many social reforms and development projects in Egypt, such as land redistribution, and edge browser The user has scrolled down to read more.

The best places to visit in Cairo

 the best places to visit in Cairo


There are many amazing places to visit in Cairo, The Capital of Egypt and one of the oldest cities in the world. You can choose from various historical, cultural, religious, and natural attractions depending on your interests and preferences. Here are some of the best places to visit in Cairo:


  • The Pyramids of Giza are Cairo and Egypt's most famous and iconic landmarks. They are the last remaining ancient Wonder of the World and a testament to the engineering and artistic skills of the ancient Egyptians. You can marvel at the Great Pyramid of Khufu, the largest and oldest of the three pyramids, and enter its narrow chambers. You can also see the Pyramid of Khafre, which retains some of its original limestone casing, and the Pyramid of Menkaure, the smallest and most recent of the three. Don’t forget to visit the Great Sphinx, a colossal statue of a lion with a human head that guards the pyramids. You can also enjoy a panoramic view of the pyramids from a nearby hill or take a camel ride around the plateau.

 The Egyptian Museum


  • The Egyptian Museum: This is one of the world's most important and impressive museums. It houses over 120,000 artifacts from different periods of Egyptian history, ranging from prehistoric times to the Roman era. You can see statues, jewelry, tools, weapons, mummies, and more. The museum's highlight is the exhibition of treasures from the tomb of Tutankhamun, including his prominent golden mask, sarcophagus, throne, chariot, and other objects. You can also explore the Royal Mummies Room, where you can witness the conserved bodies of some of the most famous pharaohs, such as Ramses II, Seti I, and Hatshepsut.

 Al-Azhar Mosque


  • Al-Azhar Mosque is one of Cairo's oldest and most beautiful mosques. It was built in 970 by the Fatimids, who founded Cairo as The Capital of Egypt. It is also one of the most prestigious Islamic institutions in the world, as it houses Al-Azhar University, considered the oldest in history. You can admire the architecture and decoration of the mosque, which reflects different styles and influences from various dynasties that ruled Egypt. You can also see the five minarets tower over the mosque and its courtyard. You can enter the mosque for free but must dress modestly and remove your shoes.

 Old Cairo


  • Old Cairo: This historic district contains some of Cairo's most senior and significant religious sites. It is also known as Coptic Cairo, home to many Christian churches and monasteries. You can visit the Hanging Church, built on top of an ancient Roman gatehouse with a wooden roof resembling Noah’s ark. You can also see the Church of St. Sergius and Bacchus, which is said to be constructed on the spot where Joseph, Mary, and


  •  Jesus stayed during their flight to Egypt. You can also explore the Ben Ezra Synagogue, one of the oldest synagogues in Egypt, containing a collection of ancient Jewish manuscripts.


These are just some of the best places to visit in Cairo, but there are many more to discover. If you want to experience this amazing city for yourself, you can join one of our packages that will take you to these and other attractions. Enjoy comfortable accommodation, delicious food, professional guides, and convenient transportation. Contact us today to book your Cairo Tours today!

Why do I book with Sun Pyramids Tours?


Sun Pyramids Tours, a reputable and innovative travel agency in Egypt, excels in tourism. We empathize with the challenges of trip planning and strive to simplify the process. Hence, we provide tailor-made tours to cater to your preferences and requirements. Moreover, we present diverse tour choices to match your unique travel preferences. Additionally, our expert guides guarantee your safety and satisfaction. Consider these compelling reasons to choose Sun Pyramids Tours for your booking:


  • We have over 53 years of experience organizing tours and trips in Egypt. We have a team of professional and licensed guides who speak different languages and have extensive knowledge of Egyptian history and culture.

  • Our fleet of modern and comfortable vehicles is provided with

  •  air-conditioning, Wi-Fi, GPS, and first aid kits. We also have 24/7 customer service to assist you with any inquiries or issues during your trip.

  • We have a flexible cancellation policy that allows you to cancel your booking up to 24 hours before your tour date without any fees. We also offer a full refund if you are unsatisfied with your tour.

  • Our competitive pricing policy guarantees you the best value for your money. We do not charge any hidden fees or extra costs for our tours. We also offer discounts and special offers for groups, families, students, and repeat customers.


We hope this article has answered some of your questions about how to visit Egyptian attractions from Hurghada and helped you plan your trip to this fantastic country. If you have any more questions or need any assistance, please feel free to contact us anytime. We are looking forward to seeing you soon in Egypt!

Related Tours